What is seed germination? Do you need to start them indoors? Can you plant seeds without germinating? Read this article to learn more. Whether you call it weed, cannabis, pot, marijuana, or something else, the plant known as Cannabis sativa is actually easy to grow at home when you know what you need to do. Growing hydroponically will provide you with higher yields and a… Aquaponics combines two systems to grow plants and fish for consumption. Learn all about how to grow cannabis with aquaponics.
5 Methods for Germinating Seeds + Can You Plant Seeds without Germinating?
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When you are starting your first garden, the whole process of germinating seeds can seem like a mystery. Do you need to start them indoors? Can they germinate directly in the soil? Can you plant seeds without germinating?
These are all excellent questions typically asked by new gardeners. And they are reasonable too. We hear so many vocabulary words thrown at us when we start learning how to grow things that it can all be confusing.
Can you plant seeds without germinating? You can plant seeds without germinating them first. This is called “direct sow” where the seeds are put directly into the soil without first sprouting or germinating them indoors.
Table of Contents
What is Seed Germination?
Seed germination is the process of seed growing into a plant. In gardening, we typically refer to germination as the process of taking a seed to a sprout.
Usually, we are looking at germination to tell us that the seeds we are using are viable. It can take a lot of work to grow flowers and vegetables. Even before the seed is ever planted beds have to be prepped, soil prepared or amended and weeds removed. Then there is seed selection and deciding when to plant.
After all of that work, what if your plants never grow? How will you know if it was the seed or something else?
Germinating Seeds in Soil
If you want to germinate seeds directly into your soil, there are a few steps you should take and a few caveats you should be aware of.
1. Prepare Your Soil
You’ll first want to prepare your soil to receive the seeds. Your soil should be nicely tilled and loose so that your seedling can easily establish a root system as it emerges.
You may want to ammend your soil to make sure it has all of the nutrients your seedling will need to thrive. The best way to know what your soil needs is to test it.
A soil test meter, like this one, is a great way to check the pH of the soil. Depending on what you are growing you may need to add it to best suit the plant.
2. Add Water
Your soil should be moist but not soaking wet. The moisture will help to soften the seed and promote germination. During this process, you’ll want to try and make sure the seed never dries out.
Many seed starting kits offer a lid to help trap moisture inside the container. When you are sowing directly into a pot or garden, one thing you can do to help the soil retain moisture is using plastic sheeting to cover the bed during the germination process.
3. Keep it Warm
Most seeds need a warm environment to grow. Warmth and moisture are the perfect equation to help a seed sprout.
A good rule of thumb is to know the sun requirements of the plants you are trying to grow and make sure that your garden bed or pot is in a location that matches.
It makes sense that if a plant normally grows in full sun, for example, that the seedling also germinates best in full sun.
Keep in mind that if you are planting early or happen to have a cold snap, a chill could kill the sensitive plant. It happens in nature, and it can happen in your garden, so it is one thing to be aware of (and a reason some prefer to germinate seeds indoors).
4. Don’t Plant to Deep
One mistake new gardeners will sometimes make is planting a seed too deep into the soil. Your seed packet may provide you with some instructions but, in general, smaller seeds should be planted closer to the surface, and larger seeds can go deeper.
Of course, planting seeds close to the surface makes them a yummy target for seed eaters, like birds, who may be passing by. A plastic covering, or even light weight bird netting, will help protect your seeds from being disturbed while they have a chance to grow.
5. Be Patient
Germinating seeds outside can take longer than germinating them indoors. There are wider temperature fluctuations. It can also be harder to maintain consistent moisture in the soil.
Both of these factors can lead to slower germination. Don’t stress out if you don’t see seedlings popping up right away, just be patient!
4 Ways to Germinate Seeds Indoors
1. Use Peat Pellets
We’ve all seen these kits in the store. Typically right next to the seed section you’ll find any of a variety of different seed starting kits. The easiest of these is the peat pellet kit.
I mean, what can be easier, you add water so that the pellets expand, put the top on and set it in a sunny place to germinate. Pretty soon, you’ll have perfectly germinated seeds ready to plant in their new home.
Best of all, the peat pellets transfer right along with the seedling so you don’t have to worry about damaging the sprout when you move it.
2. Use a Paper Towel
Many seeds can be germinated simply by gentling sandwiching the seeds in between two layers of wet paper towels. The paper towel is then usually placed in a plastic sandwich bag or even an old tupperware container.
The idea here is just to get the seeds to the point where they have sprouted, and then transfer them to soil for further growth.
This is also a great way to check if the seeds you have are viable. By germinating in paper towel, you eliminate any concerns you might have about soil type or quality.
If you don’t have paper towels handy, any sturdy paper product can work. Coffee filters make an excellent substitute, for example.
3. Seed Starting Trays
While I already mentioned the peat pellet trays above (because they are my favorite), there are a variety of other seed starting trays on the market that can do just as good a job.
In fact, these can be more economical than the peat pellet system. You will need to take into consideration whether you want a system with a top or not. Drainage is also a factor, you may need a pan to sit underneath them to catch excess water that drains out.
You don’t need a commercial system either. You still need to purchase seed starting soil for most tray systems. You could add that soil to any of a variety of other “containers” including empty eggshells eggs, paper cups, etc.
4. Germinating Seeds in Sand
Sand can be an excellent substrate for germinating seeds as well. It has great drainage, retains heat and is easy to come by. It’s one way to keep your seeds moist and help them to germinate.
You can use pure sand or a 50/50 mix of sand and seed starting mix for this germination method. According to the Indiana Crop Improvement Association, a good result from sand germination is 93% or higher!
How to Grow Marijuana Hydroponically
This article was co-authored by Lauren Kurtz. Lauren Kurtz is a Naturalist and Horticultural Specialist. Lauren has worked for Aurora, Colorado managing the Water-Wise Garden at Aurora Municipal Center for the Water Conservation Department. She earned a BA in Environmental and Sustainability Studies from Western Michigan University in 2014.
There are 14 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.
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Whether you call it weed, cannabis, pot, marijuana, or something else, the plant known as Cannabis sativa is actually easy to grow at home when you know what you need to do. Growing hydroponically will provide you with higher yields and a shorter grow time compared to growing in soil, but it can often be difficult for the beginning grower to get started with hydroponics. However, most people think of plants growing in water when they think “hydroponics” but actually your plants will get many of the benefits of hydroponics as long as they’re getting their nutrients directly in their water supply. However because of superior air to water ratio in hydroponics, it remains the industry standard. This tutorial will show you step-by-step how to grow your marijuana in 3-4 months using the (arguably) easiest hydroponic method: hand-watering in a soil-less medium.
An introduction to growing cannabis with aquaponics
Aquaponics is a growing technique that combines two efficient systems: Aquaculture, a process of farming fish such as tilapia, koi, or bluegills, and hydroponics, a method of growing plants without soil. When the two are combined, you can create a nearly closed loop system that produces both plants and fish for consumption.
How do aquaponic systems work?
Aquaponic setups are very similar to hydroponic setups, but the source of nutrients for plants is different—nutrients come from the waste of the fish. The plant roots absorb the nutrients and then purify the water before nutrients are returned to the aquarium. Fish food is the only input you’ll need, and this can be grown or purchased.
The primary nutrient produced from fish waste is nitrogen with trace amounts of other minerals. Because of this, basic aquaponic systems are great for vegetative growth, but you’ll need to add additional nutrients like phosphorus and potassium for flowering. This can also be remedied with a double-root zone.
A double-root zone allows you to divide roots into two sections: The bottom half of the pot gets submerged in water, while the upper half of the pot can be filled with soil. This allows additional nutrients to be applied to the roots without contaminating the water.
The two sections can be separated by burlap, which allows roots to travel through while preventing soil from reaching the water. When watering with additional nutrients, avoid oversaturating the soil to keep the water below in the aquaponics system clean.
Aquaponics vs. hydroponics for weed
Aquaponics utilizes a hydroponic setup for growing weed, with the addition of fish in the water chamber. This allows you to skip putting liquid nutrients in plants and instead rely on the waste of fish, a more natural source of nutrients.
The other main difference is the cultivation of fish in addition to cannabis.
Best fish for growing cannabis with aquaponics
Some considerations before choosing fish for your aquaponic setup:
- Water temperature
- Tank size
- Maintenance difficulty
Some fish need warmer water than others, so you may need to invest in a water heater or be sure your setup is in a warm place. Some fish are also bigger than others or more difficult to maintain, requiring more labor or money.
Here are types of fish most commonly found in aquaponic setups because of their low maintenance and versatility:
Advantages of growing weed with aquaponics
- Sustainability: Aquaponic systems use the waste of one organism to feed another. Fish food manufactured specifically for aquaponic systems ensures your plants will be free of toxins, and the plants will help fish grow strong and healthy.
- Growth rate: Aquaponics is a great way to grow cannabis plants quickly. By allowing the roots to take in high levels of oxygen they are able to absorb more nutrients and will thrive.
- Water use: Aquaponics systems use considerably less water than traditional systems because they recirculate water.
Disadvantages of growing weed with aquaponics
- Initial costs: Setting up an aquaponic system is more costly than a soil or even hydroponic setup.
- Maintenance: Fish need water in a specific temperature range, so you’ll need more equipment and resources to warm or cool water, and it will require more work to maintain.
- Algae: As with a hydroponic system, there’s a lot of moisture, requiring you to be on high-alert for algae growth that can harm your plants. Aquaponic systems require cleaning and sterilization to protect plants from algae.
Common challenges when growing weed with aquaponics
Growing weed in a hydroponic setup can be challenging enough, and growing in an aquaponic setup is even more difficult. Growing with aquaponics is not recommended for first-time growers.
Aquaponics can get complicated because you have two focuses: plants and fish, instead of just worrying about your weed plants.
As with growing in hydroponics, using water as your grow medium can be challenging and generally involves more equipment, time, and money.
A tricky thing with aquaponics is being able to balance the fertilizer from the fish that goes into your plants. If growing with aquaponics, be sure to have a firm grasp of nutrients and pH levels, and how to balance them.
How to set up an aquaponic weed garden
The easiest way to start an aquaponic setup is to repurpose an old fish tank and pump. Be sure to dechlorinate the water and allow it to cycle for 4-6 weeks before adding any fish.
Then you’ll need to create a media bed for the plants. Some growers use one big flood tray for a number of plants, and some use individual pots, as in the graphic above.
Then add the fish, and then the plants, and you’re ready to go! Just feed the fish to begin the cycle, and they will create fertilizer for the plants in no time.